Function words join together content words. Function words do not themselves carry much meaning, and are generally not noticed. However, they are used at a very high rate, and can tell us things about their user that content words can not.


Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
1st person I Me My Mine Myself
2nd Person You You Your Yours Yourself
3rd person He Him His His Himself
She Her Her Hers Herself
It It Its Its Itself
1st person We Us Our Ours Ourselves
2nd person You You Your Yours Yourselves
3rd person They Them Their Theirs Themselves


  • a
  • an
  • the
An article is always used with a noun.

The word a (which becomes an when the next word begins with a vowel - a, e, i, o, u) is called the indefinite article because the noun it goes with is indefinite or general.

The word the is called the definite article because it indicates a specific thing.

e.g. The difference between the sentences I sat on a chair and I sat on the chair is that the second sentence refers to a specific (definite) chair, not just any (indefinite) chair.


A preposition is a word used to link nouns, pronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns.

Prepositions show a relationship in space or time or a logical relationship between two or more people, places or things.

There are about 150 prepositions in the English language.

Preposition Examples

about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, in front of, inside, instead of, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, on top of, out of, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without

Auxiliary Verbs

For example: is, don't, have


For example: no, not, never


For example: but, and, because


For example: few, some, most

Common Adverbs

Adverbs describe a verb, an adjective or another adverb. They tell us how, where, when, why and with what frequency. For example:

For example: every, really